under

under

synonyms, antonyms, definitions, examples & translations of under in English

English Online Dictionary. What means under‎? What does under mean?

English

Etymology

From Middle English under, from Old English under, from Proto-Germanic *under (whence also German unter, Dutch onder, Danish and Norwegian under), from a merger of Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥dʰér (under) and *h₁entér (inside). Akin to Old High German untar (under), Sanskrit अन्तर् (antar, within), Latin infrā (below, beneath) and inter (between, among).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈʌndə/, [ˈɐn.də(ɹ)]
  • (General American) enPR: ŭnʹ-dər IPA(key): /ˈʌndəɹ/, [ˈʌn(ɾ)ɚ], [ˈʌɾ̃ɚ]
  • (Northern England) IPA(key): /ˈʊndə/
  • Rhymes: -ʌndə(ɹ)
  • Hyphenation: un‧der

Preposition

under

  1. At the bottom of or in the area covered or surmounted by.
    1. Below the surface of.
  2. From one side of to the other, passing beneath.
  3. Less than.
  4. Subordinate to; subject to the control of; in accordance with; in compliance with.
  5. Within the category, classification or heading of.
  6. (figuratively) In the face of; in response to (some attacking force).
  7. Using or adopting (a name, identity, etc.).

Synonyms

  • below
  • beneath
  • underneath

Antonyms

  • above
  • over

Translations

Adverb

under (not comparable)

  1. In or to a lower or subordinate position, or a position beneath or below something, physically or figuratively.
    pulled under by the currents
    weighed under by worry
  2. So as to pass beneath something.
    There's quite a gap, so you may be able to sneak under.
  3. (usually in compounds) Insufficiently.
    The plants were underwatered.
    Women are under-represented.
  4. (informal) In or into an unconscious state.
    It took the hypnotist several minutes to make his subject go under.

Synonyms

  • below
  • beneath

Antonyms

  • above
  • over

Translations

Adjective

under (comparative more under, superlative most under)

  1. Lower; beneath something.
    This treatment protects the under portion of the car from rust.
    (in compounds) underbelly, underside, undershirt, undersecretary
  2. In a state of subordination, submission or defeat.
  3. (medicine, colloquial) Under anesthesia, especially general anesthesia; sedated.
  4. (informal) Insufficient or lacking in a particular respect.
    This chicken is a bit under. (insufficiently cooked)
    This bag of apples feels under. (of insufficient weight)
    My pay packet last week was £10 under. (of insufficient monetary amount)
  5. Down to defeat, ruin, or death.
    The COVID=19 epidemic and shutdown took some businesses under.
    Big-box store and online retailing have driven many specialty and local retail stores under.

Derived terms

See also under-

Noun

under (plural unders)

  1. The amount by which an actual total is less than the expected or required amount.

References

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8
  • “under”, in OneLook Dictionary Search.
  • “under”, in The Century Dictionary [], New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911, →OCLC.

Anagrams

  • nuder, urned, unred, Ruden, runed, Düren, Duren, ruden, Rendu

Chinese

Etymology 1

From English underwear or undies.

Pronunciation

Noun

under

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) underwear

References

  • English Loanwords in Hong Kong Cantonese

Etymology 2

From English under.

Pronunciation

Verb

under

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to be under; to be subordinate to
    • 我記憶中,Alan Yeung冇under過我。 [Cantonese, trad.]
      我记忆中,Alan Yeung冇under过我。 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngo5 gei3 jik1 zung1, Alan Yeung mou5 an1 daa4 gwo3 ngo5. [Jyutping]
      In my memory, Alan Yeung has never worked under me.
  2. (Hong Kong Cantonese, photography) to underexpose

Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under, cognate with English under, German unter.

Alternative forms

  • u. (abbreviation)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /on(ˀ)ər/, [ɔnɐ], [ɔnˀɐ] or (as an adverb or at the end of a phrase) IPA(key): /onˀər/, [ˈɔnˀɐ]

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. underneath
  3. below
  4. during

Adverb

under

  1. under

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, cognate with English wonder, German Wunder.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onˀər/, [ˈɔnˀɐ]

Noun

under n (singular definite underet, plural indefinite undere)

  1. wonder
  2. marvel
  3. miracle
Inflection
Related terms
  • underfuld
  • underlig
  • undre
  • vidunder

Etymology 3

Clipping of underdel or underside.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ˈɔnɐ]

Noun

under c (singular definite underen, plural indefinite undere)

  1. bottom (part)
Declension

Etymology 4

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ˈɔnɐ]

Verb

under

  1. present tense of unde

Latin

Verb

under

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of undō

Middle English

Alternative forms

  • vnder, onder

Etymology

From Old English under, from Proto-West Germanic *undar, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. among

Descendants

  • English: under
  • Scots: unner
  • Yola: unnere

References

  • “under, prep.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.

Norwegian Bokmål

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈʉ̂nːəɾ/, /ˈʉ̂ndəɾ/
  • Predominantly silent d in the preposition, pronounced /d/ in the noun; but individual speakers may deviate.

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. below; beneath
  2. during
  3. under
Derived terms
  • oppunder
  • under-
  • underveis

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n (definite singular underet or undret, indefinite plural under or undere or undre, definite plural undera or underne or undra or undrene)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived terms
  • underfull
  • underverk
  • vidunder

References

  • “under” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Alternative forms

  • poinni (dialectal)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈʉndər/

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under. Akin to English under.

Preposition

under

  1. below, beneath, under
  2. during
Derived terms
  • oppunder
  • under-

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love). Akin to English wonder.

Noun

under n (definite singular underet, indefinite plural under, definite plural undera)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived terms
  • underverk

References

  • “under” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old Dutch

Preposition

under

  1. under

References

  • Altniederfränkischer Psalm 63

Old English

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *undar, from Proto-Germanic *under. Compare Old Saxon undar, Old High German untar.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈun.der/

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. among

Descendants

  • Middle English: under, vnder, onder
    • English: under
    • Scots: unner
    • Yola: unnere

Old Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą.

Noun

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
  2. wonderment, awe, marvel

Declension

Descendants

  • Swedish: under

Swedish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɵndɛr/

Etymology 1

From Old Swedish undir, from Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. under; below; beneath
  2. during, at the same time as
Related terms
  • underskatta
  • undertag

Etymology 2

From Old Swedish under, from Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
Declension
Derived terms
  • underbarn
  • vidunder

See also

  • på under
  • under tiden

References

  • under in Svensk ordbok (SO)
  • under in Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL)
  • under in Svenska Akademiens ordbok (SAOB)

Anagrams

  • runde, undre

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