English Online Dictionary. What means above? What does above mean?
- aboue (obsolete)
From Middle English above, aboven, abuven, from Old English ābufan, onbufan, from on (“on”) + bufan (“over”), (akin to Icelandic ofan (“from above”), Middle Dutch bōven, Old Frisian bova, Middle High German bobene) from bī (“by”) + ufan (“over”); also cognate with Danish oven, Dutch boven, German oben, Swedish ovan, Old Saxon oƀan, Old High German obana.
The preposition, adjective and the noun derive from the adverb.
- (Received Pronunciation) enPR: ə-bŭvʹ IPA(key): /əˈbʌv/
- (General American) IPA(key): /əˈbʌv/
- Rhymes: -ʌv
- Physically over; on top of; worn on top of, said of clothing. [first attested before 1150.]
- In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface. [first attested before 1150]
- Antonyms: below, beneath
- Farther north than. [first attested before 1150]
- Rising; appearing out of reach height-wise. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- (figurative) Higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; higher in measure, degree, volume, or pitch, etc. than; out of reach; not exposed to; not likely to be affected by; incapable of negative actions or thoughts. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- Higher in rank, status, or position. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- (Scotland) In addition to; besides. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- Surpassing in number or quantity; more than. [first attested around 1350–1470]
- In preference to.
- Too proud to stoop to; averse to; disinclined towards;
- Beyond; on the other side.
- (theater) Upstage of.
- (surpassing in number or quantity): passing into the adverbial sense.
above (not comparable)
- Directly overhead; vertically on top of. [first attested before 1150.]
- Higher in the same page; earlier in the order as far as writing products go. [first attested before 1150.]
- Into or from heaven; in the sky. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- In a higher place; upstairs; farther upstream. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- Higher in rank, power, or position. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- (archaic) In addition. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- More in number. [first attested around 1350–1470]
- Above zero; above freezing. [first attested in the mid 20th century.]
- (biology) On the upper half or the dorsal surface of an animal.
above (not comparable)
- Of heaven; heavenly. [first attested around (1150 to 1350).]
- (by ellipsis) Being located higher on the same page or on a preceding page. [first attested in the mid 18th century.]
- Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word said, mentioned, quoted, or the like:
- the above(-said) observations
- the above(-cited) reference
- the above(-quoted) articles
- Heaven. [first attested around 1150–1350]
- Something, especially a person's name in legal documents, that appears higher on the same page or on a preceding page.
- Higher authority.
- (archaic) betterment, raised status or condition.
The preposition above is often used further elliptically as a noun by omitting the associated noun, where it is should be clear what is omitted: e.g. See the above.
- Category:English phrasal verbs with particle (above)
- Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8
- Laurence Urdang (editor), The Random House College Dictionary (Random House, 1984 , →ISBN), page 4
- Elliott K. Dobbie, C. William Dunmore, Robert K. Barnhart, et al. (editors), Chambers Dictionary of Etymology (Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, 2004 , →ISBN), page 4
- “above”, in The Century Dictionary […], New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911, →OCLC.
- “above”, in OneLook Dictionary Search.
- “above, prep.” in the Dictionary of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Language Dictionaries.