under

under

synonyms, antonyms, definitions, examples & translations of under in English

English Online Dictionary. What means under‎? What does under mean?

English

Etymology

From Middle English under, from Old English under, from Proto-Germanic *under (whence also German unter, Dutch onder, Danish and Norwegian under), from a merger of Proto-Indo-European *n̥dʰér (under) and *n̥tér (inside). Akin to Old High German untar (under), Sanskrit अन्तर् (antar, within), Latin infrā (below, beneath) and inter (between, among).

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈʌndə(ɹ)/, [ˈɐn.də(ɹ)]
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈʌndɚ/, [ˈʌn(ɾ)ɚ], [ˈʌɾ̃ɚ]
  • (Northern England) IPA(key): /ˈʊndə/
  • Rhymes: -ʌndə(ɹ)
  • Hyphenation: un‧der

Preposition

under

  1. In or at a lower level than, so as to be covered or surmounted by.
    We found some shade under a tree.
    About £10,000 was stuffed under the mattress.
    There is nothing new under the sun.
    • 1922, Virginia Woolf, Jacob's Room Chapter 1
      The little boys in the front bedroom had thrown off their blankets and lay under the sheets.
    1. Below the surface of.
      The crocodile lurked just under the water.
  2. From one side of to the other, passing beneath.
    I crawled under the fence.
    There is a tunnel under the English Channel.
  3. Less than.
    Interest rates are now under 1%.
    We can get there in under an hour.
  4. Subordinate to; subject to the control of.
  5. Within the category, classification or heading of.
    File this under "i" for "ignore".
  6. (figuratively) In the face of; in response to (some attacking force).
    • 2011, Tom Fordyce, Rugby World Cup 2011: England 12-19 France [5]
      England's World Cup dreams fell apart under a French onslaught on a night when their shortcomings were brutally exposed at the quarter-final stage.
  7. Using or adopting (a name, identity, etc.).
    • 2013, The Huffington Post, JK Rowling Pseudonym: Robert Galbraith's 'The Cuckoo's Calling' Is Actually By Harry Potter Author [6]
      J.K. Rowling has written a crime novel called 'The Cuckoo's Calling' under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith.

Synonyms

  • below
  • beneath
  • underneath

Antonyms

  • above
  • over

Translations

Adverb

under (not comparable)

  1. In or to a lower or subordinate position, or a position beneath or below something, physically or figuratively.
    pulled under by the currents
    weighed under by worry
    • 1825, Thomas Moore, The Minster Boy
      The minstrel fell, but the foeman's chain / Could not bring his proud soul under.
  2. So as to pass beneath something.
    There's quite a gap, so you may be able to sneak under.
  3. (usually in compounds) Insufficiently.
    The plants were underwatered.
    Women are under-represented.
  4. (informal) In or into an unconscious state.
    It took the hypnotist several minutes to make his subject go under.

Synonyms

  • below
  • beneath

Antonyms

  • above
  • over

Translations

Adjective

under (comparative more under, superlative most under)

  1. Lower; beneath something.
    This treatment protects the under portion of the car from rust.
    (in compounds) underbelly, underside, undershirt, undersecretary
  2. In a state of subordination, submission or defeat.
    The army could not keep the people under.
    • 1611, Bible (King James Version), 1 Corinthians ix. 27
      I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection.
    • 1892, Sir George Giffard, Reminiscences of a Naval Officer (page 45)
      When ready for sea we went up to Greenhithe, that their lordships might inspect us, and then to Portsmouth, to take troops to Cork, a pleasant trip; but the troops left us a legacy of "mahogany flats," with which their beds were so swarming that we never got them under.
  3. (medicine, colloquial) Under anesthesia, especially general anesthesia; sedated.
    Ensure the patient is sufficiently under.
  4. (informal) Insufficient or lacking in a particular respect.
    This chicken is a bit under. (insufficiently cooked)
    This bag of apples feels under. (of insufficient weight)
    My pay packet last week was £10 under. (of insufficient monetary amount)

Derived terms

See also under-

References

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8
  • under at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • under in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

Anagrams

  • Duren, nuder, ruden, runed, unred, urned

Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under, cognate with English under, German unter.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /on(ˀ)ər/, [ɔnɐ], [ɔnˀɐ] or (as an adverb or at the end of a phrase) IPA(key): /onˀər/, [ˈɔnˀɐ]

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. underneath
  3. below
  4. during

Adverb

under

  1. under

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, cognate with English wonder, German Wunder.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onˀər/, [ˈɔnˀɐ]

Noun

under n (singular definite underet, plural indefinite undere)

  1. wonder
  2. marvel
  3. miracle
Inflection
Related terms
  • underfuld
  • underlig
  • undre
  • vidunder

Etymology 3

Clipping of underdel or underside.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ˈɔnɐ]

Noun

under c (singular definite underen, plural indefinite undere)

  1. bottom (part)
Inflection

Etymology 4

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ˈɔnɐ]

Verb

under

  1. present tense of unde

Latin

Verb

under

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of undō

Middle English

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. among

Norwegian Bokmål

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈʉndər/ (example of pronunciation)

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. below; beneath
  2. during
  3. under
Derived terms
  • oppunder
  • under-
  • underveis

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n (definite singular underet or undret, indefinite plural under or undere or undre, definite plural undera or underne or undra or undrene)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived terms
  • underfull
  • underverk
  • vidunder

References

  • “under” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈʉndər/ (example of pronunciation)

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under. Akin to English under.

Preposition

under

  1. below, beneath, under
  2. during
Derived terms
  • oppunder
  • under-

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love). Akin to English wonder.

Noun

under n (definite singular underet, indefinite plural under, definite plural undera)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived terms
  • underverk

References

  • “under” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old Dutch

Preposition

under

  1. under

References

  • Altniederfränkischer Psalm 63

Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *under. Compare Old Saxon undar, Old High German untar.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈun.der/

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. among

Descendants

  • Middle English: under
    • English: under
    • Scots: unner

Old Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą.

Noun

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
  2. wonderment, awe, marvel

Declension

Descendants

  • Swedish: under

Swedish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɵndɛr/

Etymology 1

From Old Swedish undir, from Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. under; below; beneath
  2. during, at the same time as

Etymology 2

From Old Swedish under, from Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
Declension
Related terms
  • underskatta
  • undertag

See also

  • på under
  • under tiden

References

Anagrams

  • runde, undre

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This article based on an article on Wiktionary. The list of authors can be seen in the page history there. The original work has been modified. This article is distributed under the terms of this license.