abstract

abstract

synonyms, antonyms, definitions, examples & translations of abstract in English

English Online Dictionary. What means abstract‎? What does abstract mean?

English

Etymology

From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (draw away), formed from abs- (away) + trahō (to pull, draw). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.

Pronunciation

  • Noun:
    • IPA(key): /ˈæbˌstɹækt/
  • Adjective:
    • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈæbˌstɹækt/
    • (US) IPA(key): /ˌæbˈstɹækt/, /əbˈstɹækt/, /ˈæbˌstɹækt/
  • Verb:
    • IPA(key): /ˌæbˈstɹækt/, /əbˈstɹækt/

Noun

abstract (plural abstracts)

  1. An abridgement or summary of a longer publication. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
    • Isaac Watts — An abstract of every treatise he had read.
  2. Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items. [First attested in the mid 16th century.]
    • Ford — Man, the abstract Of all perfection, which the workmanship Of Heaven hath modeled.
    1. Concentrated essence of a product.
    2. (medicine) A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose.
  3. An abstraction; an abstract term; that which is abstract. [First attested in the mid 16th century.]
    • John Stuart Mill — The concretes "father" and "son" have, or might have, the abstracts "paternity" and "filiety".
  4. The theoretical way of looking at things; something that exists only in idealized form. [First attested in the early 17th century.]
  5. (arts) An abstract work of art. [First attested in the early 20th century.]
  6. (real estate) A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title.

Usage notes

  • (theoretical way of looking at things): Preceded, typically, by the.

Synonyms

  • (statement summarizing the important points of a text): abridgment, compendium, epitome, synopsis

Derived terms

  • abstract of title

Translations

Adjective

abstract (comparative more abstract or abstracter, superlative most abstract or abstractest)

  1. (obsolete) Derived; extracted. [Attested from around 1350 to 1470 until the late 15th century.]
  2. (now rare) Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
    • 17th century, John Norris (philosopher), The Oxford Dictionary:
      The more abstract we are from the body ... the more fit we shall be to behold divine light.
  3. Expressing a property or attribute separately of an object that is considered to be inherent to that object. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
  4. Considered apart from any application to a particular object; not concrete; ideal; non-specific; general, as opposed to specific. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
    • 1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, Volume 1, page 34,
      A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing. [] A practice, however, has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression "abstract name" to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes.
  5. Difficult to understand; abstruse; hard to conceptualize. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
  6. (archaic) Absent-minded. [First attested in the early 16th century.]
    • Milton
      abstract, as in a trance
  7. (arts) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them. [First attested in the mid 19th century.]
    1. (arts, often capitalized) Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20th century. [First attested in the mid 19th century.]
    2. (music) Absolute.
    3. (dance) Lacking a story.
  8. Insufficiently factual.
  9. Apart from practice or reality; vague; theoretical; impersonal; not applied.
  10. (grammar) As a noun, denoting an intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person.
  11. (computing) Of a class in object-oriented programming, being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects.

Synonyms

  • (not applied or practical): conceptual, theoretical
  • (insufficiently factual): formal
  • (difficult to understand): abstruse

Antonyms

  • (not applied or practical): applied, practical
  • (considered apart from concrete existence): concrete

Derived terms

Translations

See also

  • reify

Verb

abstract (third-person singular simple present abstracts, present participle abstracting, simple past and past participle abstracted)

  1. (transitive) To separate; to disengage. [First attested around 1350 to 1470.]
    • Walter Scott - He was incapable of forming any opinion or resolution abstracted from his own prejudices.
  2. (transitive) To remove; to take away; withdraw. [First attested in the late 15th century.]
    • Sir Walter Scott
      He was incapable of forming any opinion or resolution abstracted from his own prejudices.
  3. (transitive, euphemistic) To steal; to take away; to remove without permission. [First attested in the late 15th century.]
    • W. Black - Von Rosen had quietly abstracted the bearing-reins from the harness.
  4. (transitive) To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize. [First attested in the late 16th century.]
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Franklin to this entry?)
  5. (transitive, obsolete) To extract by means of distillation. [Attested from the early 17th century until the early 18th century.]
  6. (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality. [First attested in the early 17th century.]
  7. (intransitive, reflexive, literally, figuratively) To withdraw oneself; to retire. [First attested in the mid 17th century.]
  8. (transitive) To draw off (interest or attention).
    • William Blackwood, Blackwood's Magazine - The young stranger had been abstracted and silent.
    He was wholly abstracted by other objects.
  9. (intransitive, rare) To perform the process of abstraction.
    • George Berkeley - I own myself able to abstract in one sense.
  10. (intransitive, fine arts) To create abstractions.
  11. (intransitive, computing) To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with "out".
    He abstracted out the square root function.

Usage notes

  • (to separate or disengage): Followed by the word from.
  • (to withdraw oneself): Followed by the word from.
  • (to summarize): Pronounced predominantly as /ˈæbˌstrækt/.
  • All other senses are pronounced as /æbˈstrækt/.

Synonyms

  • (to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw): remove, separate, take away, withdraw
  • (to abridge, epitomize, or summarize): abridge, epitomize, summarize
  • (to filch, purloin, or steal): filch, purloin, steal

Derived terms

Related terms

  • abstraction
  • abstractive
  • abstractum

Translations

References

  • abstract in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913

Dutch

Etymology

Borrowed from Middle French abstract, from Latin abstractus; cf. English abstract.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɑpˈstrɑkt/
  • Hyphenation: ab‧stract
  • Rhymes: -ɑkt

Adjective

abstract (comparative abstracter, superlative abstractst)

  1. abstract
  2. (arts) abstract

Inflection

Antonyms

  • (arts): figuratief

Derived terms

  • abstractie

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: abstrak
  • Indonesian: abstrak

Middle English

Alternative forms

  • abstracte

Etymology

From Latin abstractus, from abstrahō.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /abˈstrakt(ə)/

Adjective

abstract

  1. Drawn away or out of; detached:
    1. (Late ME, rare) Excerpted; quoted from another text.
    2. (Late ME, rare) Out of one's mind or detached from reality; temporarily insane.
    3. (Late ME, rare) Having been (pulled or moved) above the ground.
    4. (Late ME, rare) Barely comprehensible; hard to read.
    5. (Late ME, rare, grammar) Abstract (of a noun).

Related terms

  • abstraccyone
  • abstractif
  • abstractly

Descendants

  • English: abstract
  • Scots: abstract

References

  • “abstract (ppl.)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2018-05-24.

Noun

abstract

  1. (Late ME, rare) abstract, synopsis

Descendants

  • English: abstract
  • Scots: abstract

References

  • “abstract (n.)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2018-05-24.

Romanian

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin abstractus, German Abstrakt.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /abˈstrakt/

Adjective

abstract m, n (feminine singular abstractă, masculine plural abstracți, feminine and neuter plural abstracte)

  1. abstract

Declension

Antonyms

  • concret

Related terms

References


Scots

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈəbstrak(t)/

Noun

abstract (plural abstracts)

  1. abstract

Adjective

abstract (comparative mair abstract, superlative maist abstract)

  1. abstract

Verb

abstract (third-person singular present abstracts, present participle abstractin, past abstractt, past participle abstractt)

  1. abstract

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This article based on an article on Wiktionary. The list of authors can be seen in the page history there. The original work has been modified. This article is distributed under the terms of this license.